청주출장맛사지╗예약금없는출장샵セ청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주태국마사지 가격﹜◦「청주하복대 안마방」↭청주음부 마사지♩청주안마방 사정•청주출장샵추천☷청주장한평 안마방▄청주선릉 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

대구출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

청주출장맛사지▤출장부르는법☎청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주다낭 vip 마사지﹜•「청주사이판 마사지」❣청주남편 마사지█청주y존 마사지↚청주출장코스가격ロ청주안마방 썰⇣청주안마방 입에 사정

The governments of more than 190 nations 청양y존 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

청주출장맛사지█출장부르는법❀청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주사각근 마사지﹜↗「청주여친 마사지」♗청주일본 마사지 품번♈청주에스테틱 마사지➵청주안마방 런베스트☣청주출장만족보장⊕청주안마방 가는법

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

청주출장맛사지┠예약금없는출장샵↣청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주마사지 핸플﹜◙「청주대구 동대구역 모텔」➳청주구리 마사지⇔청주젖몸살 마사지☇청주이수역 마사지◦청주여성 마사지►청주오일 마사지 av

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 군산출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

청주출장맛사지☠출장부르는법┪청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주일본 마사지 몰카﹜⇜「청주오피 투샷」シ청주대전 안마방 추천❉청주유흥인 토렌트オ청주고시촌 안마방✐청주서양 안마방❧청주모텔 보도

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 파주코코넛 오일 두피 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

청주출장맛사지➼예약ν청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주안마방 오픈시간﹜↤「청주제목없음 안마방」⇟청주화정 안마방➳청주출장마사wl♨청주안마방 동창♪ 청주몰카 안마방┋청주안마방 시간제

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 울산출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

청주출장맛사지청주러브젤 마사지

  • 봉화남편 마사지
  • 청주전신 마사지
  • 청주출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    청주출장맛사지囍예약금없는출장샵ⓥ청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주모텔 보도﹜☪「청주편두통 마사지」◊청주음경 마사지✓청주조건◣청주방이동 마사지┰청주호치민 리버티 마사지τ청주제주도 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 영주마사지 토렌 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 대구출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    포항출장안마
    보령마사지 영상 bitsnoop.xyz 파주안마방 태국
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 대전출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    청주출장맛사지↟예약[청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주제주시 안마방﹜❃「청주안마방 20대」☆청주연예인 마사지⇪청주교대 안마방⇘청주홍진호 안마방✪청주순천 타이 마사지マ청주안마방 태국녀

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 곡성타이 아로마 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    청주출장맛사지☆출장부르는법↴청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주sod 마사지﹜┛「청주포승읍 안마방」✌청주손 마사지↝청주지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성전용 마사지┛청주경기 광주 마사지ナ청주국 안마방 초이스♯청주카톡

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 대전출장샵 .

    안양평택 여관
    공주태국 마사지 여행 카지노사이트 보성신원동 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    청주출장맛사지▨24시출장샵☻청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주저주파 마사지﹜ξ「청주안마방 토렌트」┾청주림프 마사지 금기 사항①청주불알 마사지⇘청주강남 전립선 마사지╌청주방콕 마사지 비용┩청주세븐 상추 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 85me.xyz .

    청주출장맛사지╛24시출장샵⇪청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주춘천 마사지 후기﹜❃「청주세종시 안마방」⇛청주산본 마사지⇪청주오목교 안마방♂청주안마방 지명녀☁청주도쿄 안마방➼청주fc2 남친 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 군산출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 남양주일베 모텔 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    청주출장맛사지☪24시출장샵∷청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주해운대 아가씨﹜⇤「청주대전 마사지 후기」✉청주남성전용☎청주건식 마사지☭청주경기 광주 마사지◢청주금정 마사지♨청주아로마 마사지 후기

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    청주출장맛사지◦출장부르는법⇜청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주여성 전용 마사지 알바﹜┴「청주정왕동 마사지」⇠청주안마방 알바↳청주안마방 나무위키☱청주안마방 발기⇘청주시흥 안마방❈청주평택 모텔 가격

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 거제마사지 공떡 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 온라인카지노 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 구미출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 청주여자 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 군산출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    청주출장맛사지↩출장부르는법☻청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주video.fc2.com 마사지﹜→「청주정왕역 안마방」╬청주안마방 나무┬청주섹시 마사지◎청주국 안마방 초이스☵청주카톡♝청주타이마사지 불법

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, econo-edu.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 전주출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and phyangdeok.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    청주출장맛사지◎예약금없는출장샵❖청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주오류동 안마방﹜η「청주전국 안마방」┐청주체코 마사지 fc2α청주안마방 체험➹청주모유수유 마사지☣청주남성전용┽청주김해 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    용인커플 마사지 tumblr
    온라인카지노 수원백마 안마방 진주출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    청주출장맛사지♂24시출장샵♯청주해피 오렌지 출장 샵﹛청주용산 마사지﹜┩「청주정선 사북 마사지」↽청주발안 모텔⇀청주대전 마사지◣청주포천 마사지✡청주강릉 타이 마사지ロ청주강릉 타이 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.청주출장맛사지청주군산 안마방♗청주마사지 전단지☼「청주스포츠마사지 자격증」청주포항 타이 마사지♈청주하단 안마방♣청주마사지 방법☑청주천호동 마사지⇪대전출장샵예약금없는출장샵청주만수동 마사지◘청주aktkwl♢『청주익산 마사지』청주폼롤러 마사지☺청주안마방 노출☻청주홍대 안마방ノ청주광주 안마방┣청주출장맛사지김제신흥 안마방청주안마방 유출╎청주어깨 마사지↔(청주건대 안마방)청주일산 여관↪청주동인천 마사지┟청주쥬니공주 안마방◄청주청량리 안마방❃청주북창동 후기-청주안마♡{청주홍콩 마사지}청주안마방 키스 가능┨청주논현 안마방╰청주안마방 미러╖청주안마방 단발☀청주안마방 모음»청주김원중 안마방♪{청주여성 전용 마사지}청주창원 마사지➡청주가산디지털단지역 안마방⇞청주장유 안마방┷청주헬로 마사지ア청주커플 마사지✥청주천안 유흥“「청주남성 마사지」청주건전한 마사지✂청주카카오출장┗청주월곶 마사지▄청주성기 마사지⇩예약함안무한샷 안마방예약금없는출장샵청주강남 안마방 추천✔청주방이동 마사지⇁(청주사당역 안마방)청주안마방 실사☋청주출장 사기♧청주비염 마사지⇩청주서울 출장 후기⇂청주출장맛사지청주출장맛사지군산출장안마청주동서울 안마방청주속초 모텔 가격청주태국 마사지 불법청주언양 마사지청주출장맛사지청주포항 마사지 후기⇆청주전주 안마방↦〈청주성감 마사지〉청주양재역 마사지◙청주아산 안마방♝청주산남동 마사지유청주만남 방π하동출장색시미녀언니

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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